Woody Plants

The list below includes a total of 67 species currently known.  Common names are used; scientific names will be added later

Large trees: >=10m tall (33 feet), 23 species

White pine  –  abundant everywhere, shade intolerant, the tallest tree, emergent

Hemlock – abundant large tree, moist areas, shade tolerant, under attack by adelgid

Pitch Pine – two tall specimens known, serotinous cones, need fire to open; no regeneration observed

Northern Red Oak – abundant, hybridizes with black oak, many stump sprouts & double trees due past logging activities

Black Oak – uncommon to common, hard to be sure with hybrids

White Oak – common, fire and drought resistant, some large open-grown specimens,

Swamp White Oak – patchy, uncommon, found in wet areas, vernal pools; has large sweet acorns

Black Birch  – abundant to superabundant in dense groves in former logging roads, shade tolerant when small

Yellow birch – common in areas with better moister soils, shade tolerant

Paper Birch – patchy, short-lived, shade intolerant

Red Maple  – abundant, shade tolerant, stump sprouts, many poor quality trees

Sugar maple – patchy in moister areas with better soils, shade tolerant

American Beech – abundant, shade tolerant, colonial; eventually succumbs to bark disease

Black Cherry – common, patchy, shade intolerant

White Ash – common, does better in moister areas, in decline due to disease

Black Gum – common, patchy, especially wet areas, heavily deer-browsed; several old trees untouched by timbering

Bitternut Hickory – common, patchy, drier sites

Shagbark Hickory – uncommon to rare at Masson Ridge, just two known, probably more present.

Butternut – rare, only one found here, declining everywhere from canker

Big Tooth Aspen – uncommon, a single patch with large trees, shade intolerant, fast growing

American Linden  – uncommon found in higher pH soils, limited regeneration due to deer browse

American Elm – rare at Masson Ridge, small specimens only,  but several large ones on adjacent property

Black locust – naturalized from midwest, needs sun to establish, grows rapidly, most are near the road

Small trees: <= 10m (33 feet), 16 native, 2 exotic

Amer. Chestnut – common but overlooked, stump sprouts, gets the blight, dies back

Amer. Hornbeam – patchy, moist to wet areas

Hop Hornbeam – patchy, moist areas

Hawthorn – common, usually under 10 feet tall

Juneberry – common, patchy, openings near wetlands, occasionally to 30 feet

Crabapple – naturalized european in openings, found mostly in the house envelope; wide range of phenotypes

Sassafras – patchy, moist areas, shade tolerant; porcupine defoliate and kill it, may account for absence of specimens > 10m

Fire cherry – patchy in openings, fast growing, short lived

Striped maple – abundant throughout, often topples over before it gets tall

Black Ash –  patchy in permanently wet areas with higher pH

Red Cedar – confined openings, shade intolerant, bird dispersed

Pagoda Dogwood – probably common, but needs openings to size up and flower

Flowering Dogwood –  six tall specimens known, not regenerating; anthracnose disease and seedlings browsed by deer

Bladdernut – one colonial patch in talus, unusual to be so far from the river

Balsam fir – only a single specimen known, probably are others

Black Spruce – uncommon and declining, hit hard by acid rain and now climate change

Buckthorn – common exotic, invasive in openings, fruit dispersed by birds

Shrubs: <=3m, 22 species, 20 native

Highbush blueberry – common tall shrub, in openings, bumblebees pollinate

Lowbush blueberry – abundant, thrives in openings but persists in light shade

Huckleberry – uncommon to common, tolerates dry but not deep shade

Maleberry – patchy dense colonies, moist semishade, has no berry

Mountain Laurel – abundant, occurs in thickets, tolerates light shade but prefers moister sites

Sheep Laurel – patchy, poor soils, drought tolerant but shade intolerant

Witch Hazel – abundant, tree-like but always leans, flowers in cold weather

Beaked Hazel – common, small colonies, flowers in March, small tasty nut

Black Chokecherry – openings, spring flowers, bitter fruit

Mountain Holly – occasionally tree-like, moist to wet areas

Winterberry – common in wetlands and edges

Maple-leaved viburnum – abundant, drier sites, deer browsing keeps it short

Witherod – another viburnum, uncommon, moister sites, openings, deer browse it

Hobblebush –  shade tolerant, colonial in moister areas

Spicebush – patchy, wet areas, shade tolerant, red berries

Leatherwood – patchy, often with spicebush, yellow flowers in April, fruits green to yellow

Red Elderberry – in openings, flowers first in April, bitter red fruit by June, enjoyed by birds

Purple Elderberry – in openings, deer-browse heavily; flowers mid summer, purple fruit in August

Sweetfern – very small aromatic woody colonial, found in poor soils, disturbed areas with sun

Meadowsweet – several different species, colonial in openings

Japanese Barberry – common, shade tolerant invasive exotic, deer will not eat; red berries taken by birds

Burning Bush – shade tolerant exotic, deer will eat and barberry may shelter it; red fruit taken by birds

Bush honeysuckle – one of several invasive exotic species, one patch at a former log landing

Vines – 4 species, 3 native

Grapevine – throughout, with large vines into the canopy

Virginia creeper throughout

Poison Ivy primarily in wetter areas

Asian Bittersweet